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"Devices enormously smaller than before will remodel engineering, chemistry, medicine, and computer technology. How can we understand machines that are so small? Nanosystems covers it all: power and strength, friction and wear, thermal noise and quantum uncertainty. This is the book for starting the next century of engineering."

 - Marvin Minsky  MIT \begin{aligned} & \text { - Marvin Minsky } \\ & \text { MIT } \end{aligned}

Science magazine calls Eric Drexler "Mr. Nanotechnology." For years, Drexler has stirred controversy by declaring that molecular nanotechnology will bring a sweeping technological revolution-delivering tremendous advances in miniaturization, materials, computers, and manufacturing of all kinds. Now, he's written a detailed, top-to-bottom analysis of molecular machinery - how to design it, how to analyze it, and how to build it.

Nanosystems is the first scientifically detailed description of developments that will revolutionize most of the industrial processes and products currently in use. This groundbreaking work draws on physics and chemistry to establish basic concepts and analytical tools. The book then describes nanomechanical components, devices, and systems, including parallel computers able to execute 102010^{20} instructions per second and desktop molecular manufacturing systems able to make such products. Via chemical and biochemical techniques, proximal probe instruments, and software for computer-aided molecular design, the book charts a path from present laboratory capabilities to advanced molecular manufacturing.

Bringing together physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, and computer science, Nanosystems provides an indispensable introduction to the emerging field of molecular nanotechnology.

K. ERIC DREXLER published the first scientific paper on molecular nanotechnology ir. 1981. In addition, he taught the first course on the subject (at Stanford University) and chaired the first two conferences. He is currently President of the Foresight Institute and a Research Fellow of the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing. He wrote Nanosystems while a Visiting Scholar at the Stanford University Department of Computer Science and continues to lecture at universities and corporations in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. He received his doctoral degree in molecular nanotechnology from MIT.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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[^53] † Discussions phrased in terms of controlling and building with "individual atoms" (Drexler, 1986a) have fostered a perception that molecular manufacturing would employ individual, unbonded, and hence highly reactive carbon atoms. This rightly strikes chemists as implausible. Indeed, unbound atoms would be difficult to produce and control; more conventional reactants seemed appropriate from the start. The same volume speaks of using "reactive molecules" as tools "to bond atoms together.... few at a time," and the first paper on the subject (Drexler, 1981) speaks of positioning "reactants" and "reactive groups." Controlling the motions and reactions of individual molecules, of course, implies controlling the motions and destinations of their individual constituent atoms.